Hallux valgus: causes, pictures, symptoms and treatment

Hallux valgus has its reasons and symptoms emerge. Look at them, know the methods of treatment of this disease.

hallux valgus in children

The diagnosis of hallux valgus is the most common of the variation in the forefoot and toes. 23% of people aged 18 to 65 years of age and more than 35% of those over 65 years of age have the diagnosis. The thumb beyond the outer edge of the foot, bulges by pressing down on the Shoe.

Description of the disease

Hallux valgus is almost always manifests itself in deviation towards the outer edge of the foot. Therefore, the tendon in the big toe no longer flows in parallel. Instead, it develops a deviation of the norm. This is a growing and painful inflammation usually in the form of protrusion of the joint.

PLANO-feet valgus – a kind of deformation with the displacement of the midfoot. This marked the twisting of the heels to the outside.

Varieties of the disease

The diagnosis of hallux valgus can occur in different degrees:

  • Beveled finger, the stock thumb is bent, pointing to the outer edge of the foot.
  • A ganglion is a thickening of the joint, which causes him to push from the inside edge of the Shoe.
  • Flatfoot is a drop in front of the arch of the foot (transverse arch).

Cosmetic or medical problem

In the early stages, many people find the tension just a cosmetic problem. With time, the deformation increases. But the damage to the joint and the forefoot continues to grow. So the treatment of hallux valgus is the beginning of the correction of the position of the big toe with the use of exercise in the feet, the spikes or surgery.

Many of those who suffer - at least in the beginning - I think that is a cosmetic problem, which becomes visible when wearing shoes with an open toe. Valgus deformity should not affect the daily life.

How is hallux valgus

Often, the problems are caused by wearing shoes with high heels. Move all the body weight on the forefoot, increasing the pressure on the joints. In front of arch of the foot (transverse arch) falls. The ends of the toes lying on the ground. The stretching of the tendons leads to the fact that the bulk of joint - like a bow curved braid inwards other toes.

Adjacent fingers are displaced thumb, which runs towards the inside, and then deformed. The tendon of the big toe is angled towards the joint. Sesamoid bones, which govern the tendons of the toes, placed asymmetrically thumb, and visibly upset. The sock is rotated out of the joint, in the same way as the onion, the more tense rope.

Sesamoid bones, your paper

Valgus deformity of the big toe leads to changes of the foot. Deformity in the bones are also very noticeable. These small bones freely suspended several tendons and form a support for them. Sesamoid bone located below the joint, in general, maintain the curve of the foot between them. In the case of hallux valgus these bones are offset to the side. The more they push, the more pronounced the distortion.

If these sesamoid bones no longer function, the tendons of the big toe, the normal movement of the big toe during walking is impaired. More and more stress is placed on other fingers.

The causes of hallux valgus: trauma, fashionable shoes and weak connective tissue. The style of life or nature? Close to 90% of all patients received this disease is hereditary. And yet, the reason is not only innate.

Congenital weakness of the connective tissue also affects the tendons. The changes in the structure of the foot, that occur after accidental and other injuries of the foot, for example, fractures may also contribute to the deformation. Even inflammatory changes in the joints (arthritis) can be the reason for the deformation of the piece. Women suffer from weaker connective tissue. The bending posture also leads to this disease, and injuries. Some neurological disorders also lead to the disease.

Other factors associated with stress, contribute to the development of deformation - the presence of excess weight. The speed of development of the deformation increases markedly with age. However, some very young, women as well as men have this disease. Then, the cause of the illness is determined to not overload the feet, and genetics.

deformity of the foot

Peculiarities of diagnosis and treatment

Surgery of the hallux valgus of the big toe, will be given after the diagnosis. X-ray shows pathology of bones no longer hold the big toe between them, but instead lie side by side. Podiatrist usually recognize the deformation by visual inspection of the feet. Valgus deformity is often characterized by markedly elevated angle. In patients with hallux valgus typically occur concomitant foot deformity.

The first thing you need to determine is the angle of the legs with a defect of the arc longitudinal of the foot. Here the doctor identificeret X-position of the heel and the sole of the foot that rests on the ground. The doctor asks about the family members, there are cases of deformation.

Radiograph of the foot and provides confidence in the diagnosis. It shows the exact degree of deformation.

The MRI can detect damage. The position of the big toe at an angle of up to 10° is considered normal. A defect is the angle, that is 16 to 20°. Moderate deformation is the deviation from 16 to 40°.

Treatment at an early stage

Can I move the thumb in its normal position after deformation? The prognosis varies depending on the stage of disease and age groups of patients. In younger patients it is possible to lift the arch and correct the position of the finger for exercises of physiotherapy and conservative treatment.

In older patients the deformity requires surgical intervention. Then it indicates good prospects for improvement.


The people are not slow to accept radical measures. The operation is the simplest method for the patient: incisions in the skin, scars, and the use of implants to minimize the development of strain.

Progressive treatment of hallux valgus with the growing tension makes the corresponding conservative or surgical methods to straighten the big toe.

What is the appropriate treatment for each patient, the orthopaedic surgeon will decide based on the individual characteristics.

Require surgical intervention when there is:

  • Pain in the legs, limitation of mobility.
  • Chronic inflammation, which extends to little toes.
  • Increase of the stiffness of the great toe with deformity (so-called "reduction").

Which surgical techniques to choose? It is possible to restore the normal state? Modern orthopaedic surgery offers several effective options.

The treating orthopedic surgeon should discuss with the patient what surgical method will be used in a particular case. However, almost all methods of surgical intervention are determined by the principle: adjust tendons and capsule joint in order to straighten the big toe.

Advanced technology

Medical research has developed different surgical techniques of hallux valgus. In recent years, was developed valgus surgical technique that has been proven at the international level, but it is only a small number of hospitals in Germany: the so-called minimally invasive surgery strain.

Uses small instruments the size of only 2 mm, similar to dental. With its application to injuries of the soft tissues during the intervention can be significantly reduced. This reduces the healing time and the development of complications, and the recovery of the wound was accelerated due to a minor soft tissue injuries.

Characteristics of the disease in children

Hallux valgus in children is expressed in the presence of clubfoot. This is a congenital condition that affects newborn babies. The deviation has been described in the medical literature since the time of the ancient Egyptians. "Congenital" means that the condition is present at birth and occurs during the fetal development. It is not uncommon and the incidence varies between the different breeds.

In Caucasian populations around a thousand of children are born with crooked feet. In Japan, the numbers are one out of two thousand, and in some countries of the South Pacific get sick seven babies of thousands of euros.

The surgery in children

Surgical procedure is heavy and complicated, but the goal is always the same. The surgeon will find and cut all the ligaments that are too tight. Ligaments - connective tissue that connect the bones. When cut, it was finally restore the scar tissue. Growing baby this scar tissue can form new ligaments that are not as dense.

Once the ligaments are weak, the surgeon can align the bones of the foot are normal. Treatment of hallux valgus in children requires the use of pins. Metal studs are commonly used to hold the bones in the correct position. Metal pins stick out through the skin and is removed after three to six weeks after the operation.

Related methods of treatment

interrupt treatment in children

Through exercises that promote the free movement of the gold, the appearance of the deformity can be effectively prevented. But very few boys and girls go through this type of preventive exercises in adolescence. The conservative treatment only can relieve the symptoms.

Effective for the prevention of the disease is massage with hallux valgus. The procedure is the use of rubbing, kneading and vibration. The course is ten days to two weeks. Need a break of ten days. The mother can pull the foot of the child, or to seek the services of professional therapists massage.

Prevention of hallux valgus

To avoid hallux valgus in adults, do not wear high-heel shoes every day. As often as possible to go barefoot. Do exercises for the feet and strengthen foot muscles.